PRELIMINARY WORKS FOR ATHENS METRO LINE 4
This document serves as the 2nd annual Report for the monitoring of environmental impact of the Project entitled “ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORKS AND PUBLIC UTILITY ORGANIZATIONS NETWORK RELOCATIONS – ATHENS METRO LINE 4, SECTION A’ ALSOS VEIKOU – GOUDI”, it concerns year 2022 and, more specifically, the time period from 01.01.2022 until 31.12.2022 and 18 worksite locations of the Project, namely:
- EYDAP Shaft
- Veikou Shaft – Washing Plant Maintenance
- ALSOS VEIKOU Station
- GALATSI Station
- ELIKONOS Station
- KYPSELI Station
- DIKASTIRIA Station
- AKADEMIA Station
- Vivliothiki Shaft
- KOLONAKI Station
- Formionos Shaft
- KESSARIANI Station
- Near East Shaft
- PANEPISTIMIOUPOLI Station
- ILISSIA Station
- ZOGRAFOU Station
- GOUDI Station
- Dikaiossynis Shaft
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE PROJECT AND REMEDIAL MEASURES
During the execution of works, the effects on the air may be induced mainly during the execution of the archaeological works, as well as during the PUO network diversion works, including also traffic arrangements, demolitions, dismantling works and PUO network relocation works. Moreover, short-range and short-term effects may be induced during the transfer of excavation spoil and construction materials to/from the worksite areas.
The effects in the atmosphere identified during the reporting period at the Project’s worksite locations concern the emission of air pollutants (gases) throughout the operation of vehicles-machinery and during the transfer of excavation spoil to/from the worksite areas.
In view of reducing and controlling the emissions of air pollutants in the atmosphere, the appropriate measures have been introduced concerning the prevention of emissions and their spreading in the urban environment, such as:
- Keeping vehicle and machinery exhausts away from the ground surface in order not to favor generation of dust while they are in operation;
- Regular maintenance of equipment/vehicles/machinery for reasons of proper operation and reduction of fume emissions. Project vehicles and machinery have a technical inspection sheet issued by the Vehicle Technical Control Centre (KTEO), as well as an exhaust control card, in accordance with the applicable legislative requirements.
- Eco driving mode of the vehicles to reduce fuel consumption and fume emissions, moving at low speed to reduce dust;
- Prohibition of burning residues from cleaning works, excavations and dismantling works, as well as any kind of materials;
- Limiting, to the minimum possible extent, the duration of those works favoring and/or generating dust.
Based on the available data, within the reference time period no negative effect in the air due to the execution of works has been identified or recorded. Taking into account the content of the approved Environmental Impact Assessment Studies and of the supplementary Environmental Studies of the Project, as well as the Technical Environmental Studies for the worksites, the experience gained from similar projects, as well as measurements on particulate emissions (PM2.5 & PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), effected in the reporting period at the locations of the Project worksites, which are considered as the most aggravated –in terms of works- and sensitive, it is considered that the emissions of pollutants are local, mild and of short-range and do not affect negatively and drastically the quality of the atmosphere in the wider area of the locations where works have been executed.
During the reporting period, based on the available data, no negative effect has either been identified or recorded as regards the quality of water due to the execution of works, i.e. during the execution of archaeological works as well as during the execution of works for the diversion of PUOs, including traffic arrangements, demolition works, dismantling works and the works for the relocation of PUO networks.
It is noted that, as regards the reference time period, no water pumping has been carried out and, thus, no settlement tanks have been installed. Moreover, no vehicle and machinery and other equipment intended for the project have undergone washing at the worksite areas.
During the reporting period and based on the available data, no negative effect has either been identified or recorded as regards the ground during the execution of works, i.e. during the execution of archaeological works, during the execution of works for the diversion of PUO networks, including traffic arrangements, demolition works, dismantling works and the works for the relocation of PUO networks, as well as during the transfer of excavation spoil and construction materials to/from the worksite areas.
The impact ascertained on the flora throughout the execution of the works during the reporting period concern the grubbing and the cutting of the existing trees and shrubs due to the executed works, i.e. execution of archaeological works and works for the diversion of PUO networks, including traffic arrangements, demolition works, dismantling works and works for the relocation of PUO networks.
In order to prevent the negative impact on the flora and the urban green in the worksite areas, the following measures have been introduced:
- Replanting of trees and shrubs at the plant nursery of the Municipality of Athens, at the recommendation of the Department of Greenery of the Municipality of Athens.
- Tree care (pruning) provided to all trees before grubbing and replanting works.
- Tree care (fertilizing, watering, etc.) provided to all trees replanted at the plant nursery of the Municipality of Athens, as recommended.
- Replanting of trees and shrubs which can be replanted, upon recommendation of the bodies concerned (Departments of Greenery of the municipalities concerned), at the appropriate locations.
- Removal and handling of pruned and cut trees and shrubs which cannot be replanted at a licensed plant.
- For each project location, a Special Study for the Management of Urban Green and Flora is prepared and submitted for approval to ATTIKO METRO S.A., according to which cutting, grubbing and replanting of the existing flora is performed.
The trees and shrubs to be replanted are designated by the Departments of Greenery concerned of the responsible municipalities, while, where required, the Department of Forests of Athens and the Department of Woods and Parks shall opine on the matter, and are replanted at locations suggested by the aforementioned services. The remaining non-replanted trees and shrubs are properly handled in cooperation with plants licensed for the removal and disposal/recovery of biodegradable waste (European Waste Code 20 02 01: garden and park wastes – Biodegradable Waste).
Based on the available data, during the reporting period no negative impact on the built environment in and adjacent to the worksite areas has been ascertained and recorded. Any impact that may be caused during the execution of all works relate to buildings, road network, infrastructure networks and public infrastructures.
Quality of life of residents
Noise and vibrations
During the reporting period, impact on the quality of life of the residents in the areas of the project locations where works have been executed and which are attributed to noise emissions and vibrations, are considered to be of local character, mild and short-term and do not adversely affect to a great extent the quality of the urban environment in the wider area of the locations where works have been executed, taking also into consideration the results of the noise & vibrations measurements performed during the reporting period in the areas which are most burdened with executed works as well as in sensitive worksite locations of the Project.
The impact on the quality of life of the residents in the areas of the project locations, as well as in the acoustical environment, caused by the generated noise and vibrations, may be mainly caused during the execution of the archaeological works and during the PUO network diversions works, including traffic arrangements, demolition works and works for PUO networks diversions. Moreover, mild and short-term impacts may be caused during the transportation of excavation spoil and construction material from/to the worksite areas.
Such impacts are:
- Noise emissions generated from the operation of project machinery, equipment for the execution of works and from the circulation of the project vehicles and machinery in the worksite area.
- Vibration emissions generated from the operation of project machinery, equipment for the execution of works and from the circulation of vehicles and the project machinery in the worksite area.
In order to limit the generation of noise and vibrations, the following measures have been introduced, namely:
- Use of equipment ensuring efficient noise damping using the appropriate silencers, acoustic lining, shields, sound insulation, noise screens, etc.
- Regular maintenance of the equipment to ensure that the equipment is in good condition and, thus, that the noise emitted during its operation is minimized.
- Technical inspection sheet (issued by KTEO) for vehicles transporting construction materials and excavation spoils and control of the levels of the emitted noise during operation against the applicable legislative requirements.
- Installation of equipment at the greatest possible distance from adjacent buildings.
- Limiting the simultaneous operation of machinery causing high levels of noise and vibrations (air compressors, drilling rig, hammers, piling machinery, rollers, etc.) and its operation during resting hours.
- Carrying out loading/unloading and circulation of trucks and project machinery in a way so as to ensure the lowest possible noise levels.
During the reporting period, based on the available data, no significant negative impacts have been ascertained and recorded on the accessibility of citizens to public areas, properties, commercial shops and work areas. Impacts, if any, are considered to be of local nature and mild, while their duration extends over the duration of the execution of works.
It is noted that special care is given so that in every project location the least possible surface is occupied for the needs of the execution of the works and so as to ensure adherence to the time schedule in order not to delay the release of occupied areas.
Impacts on the cultural heritage during the execution of the works may be caused mainly from the relocation of PUO networks. In order to avoid negative impacts on the historical and cultural background, special care is taken so as to protect archaeological finds, which may be encountered throughout the duration of the works.
More precisely, prior to the commencement of the works in the individual locations of the project, investigation works for the identification of antiquities, where required, have been carried out, including the necessary retaining and/or supporting works. The points of interest where investigation trenches could be bored are set by the Archaeological Department, which is notified in writing prior to the commencement of the works. The archaeological works are subsequently executed under the supervision of the Archaeological Department.
During the reporting period, no negative impacts have been ascertained and recorded on the cultural heritage due to the execution of the works. Should during the archaeological survey, archaeological finds are encountered, any impact shall be positive, since they will be collected, preserved and displayed.
Handling of Excavation Spoil & Archaeological Works, Dismantling and Demolition Works
As regards the handling of excavation spoil and waste generated during the execution of works in the worksite areas, a relevant record is kept along with the relevant supporting documentation (accompanying transportation documents, acceptance certifications, shipping notes, etc.) documenting the method of disposing every category of waste. Excavation spoil disposal permits, as well as the respective approvals and supporting documents, have been submitted along with the Special Study for the Handling of Excavation Spoil and Construction Materials.
According to the content of the approved Environmental Monitoring Plan of the project and the approved Special Study for the Handling of Excavation Spoil and Construction Materials, the redundant excavation spoil can be transferred for disposal to approved areas. During the reporting period, the majority of the excavation spoil accumulated due to excavation, dismantling and demolition works in the framework of the archaeological works and the PUO network diversion works, including traffic arrangements, dismantling works, removal works and works for the relocation of PUO networks, were transferred to licensed areas for proper treatment.
Biodegradable waste from worksite area cleaning activities (European Waste Catalogue code 20 02 01) related to the urban greenery that cannot be replanted, as well as biodegradable waste from worksite area cleaning activities (grass, dry branches etc.) were made available to licensed companies for proper disposal.
Per the detailed data obtained during the reporting period, i.e. from 01.01.2022 until 31.12.2022, no significant negative environmental impact has been identified and recorded during the execution of the project entitled “ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORKS AND PUBLIC UTILITY ORGANIZATIONS NETWORK RELOCATIONS – ATHENS METRO LINE 4, SECTION A’ ALSOS VEIKOU – GOUDI”.